Archaeologists and anthropologist back in the day (say around the later Victorian era and the early 20th century) had it easy in terms of research and methodologies. Study subjects and specimens were abundant while strict and standardized methodologies were not. Researchers just went out and both literally and physically grabbed data. They weren’t data necessarily that they needed, but data they wanted. Many times, collection techniques were…less than completely ethical, but as has been the long trend in human history, we learn from our mistakes.